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The Female Form: 1900-2000 One Hundred Years of Dips and Curves

Face of the Year International Beauty Contest

The Stirring of Sleeping Beauty

Modern Standards of Beauty: Nature or Nurture

Pheromones: The Smell of Beauty

Different Place Different Beauty

Evolutionary Psychology

Beauty and the Menstrual Cycle

The Question of Beauty

Babyness and Sexual Attraction

Female Pheromones and Male Physiology

Face Values

Revolting Bodies: The Monster Beauty of Tattooed Women

Piercing and the Modern Primitive

We must stop glorifying physical beauty

Click Here to Get Gorgeous


When Was the Last Time You Looked Glamorous?

Facial Beauty and Fractal Geometry

The Impact of Family Structure and Social Change

The Reality of Appearance

Sexual Selection and the Biology of Beauty

Venus, From Fertility Goddess to Sales Promoter

Why We Fall in Love

The Science of Attraction

The Biology in the Beholder's Eye

The Science of Attraction by Rob Elder

Your Cave or Mine

All Ah We is One Family

Skin Texture and Female Facial Beauty


Meat Types

       1. Beef

Meat from different types of cattle are designated with various terms. Veal is the meat from cattle slaughtered 3 to 4 weeks after birth. Beef is the meat of cattle more than one year old. Beef carcass is classified according to sex, age, and sexual conditions of the animals as follows:

       Major carcase meats in Europe and the United States are produced from cattle, sheep, and pigs, whereas in the Middle East, Africa, and India other animals, such as goats, camels, and water buffalo, are also used. Stear a bovine male castrated at very young age

  Heifer a bovine female that has not yet borne a calf

 Cow a bovine female, that has borne a calf

 Stag a bovine male that is castrated after maturity

 Calf a male or female bovine animal of up to 12 months age (3-8 months ).


 The quality of meat from stear and heifer is the same, if animals are of the same grade. The quality of meat from cow and bull depends upon maturity, but is generally inferior to that of stear or heifer. The meat quality of stag varies according to the age at which it is castrated.

 Beef production systems range from extensive ranging of cattle to very intensive "feedlots" in the United States. The animals are usually raised initially on grass, which may be grazed or fed as conserved 


hay or silage, with cereal-based concentrates fed during the finishing stages. Veal is produced from calves under semi-intensive systems, using milk-based concentrated rations to produce very light-colored meats.

Horsemeat is mainly used for animal food in United Kingdom, but it is widely consumed in continental Europe by human beings. Goats and camels are major meat animals in the Arab countries. Since mature camels produce rather tough meat, young animals are preferred for meat.

Water buffalo are important in the Middle East and Asia and are usually farmed extensively in traditional ways.

Acceptance of animals or their parts as foods varies considerably with national preferences and religious beliefs. While the consumption of horsemeat, dogmeat, and guinea pigs is not considered normal in the U nited Kingdom, these foods are eaten elsewhere. The J ewish food laws proscribe a number of animals whose flesh is regarded as unclean, for example those who chew the cud, but do not have cloven feet ( e.g., coney or rock hyrax, hare, camel) and those with cloven feet, but do not chew the cud (pigs ). The rules also prohibited consumption of many other animals such as birds of prey or carrion eaters, waterfowl, snakes, and marine mammals (6). Islam has proscribed the pig as unclean. Both Islam and Judaism have prescribed a ritual protocol for the slaughter of animals for human consumption.

In the United States, careful management of wildlife provides an important source of meat, and in Sweden deer and reindeer are important meat animals. Wild animals often flourish on poor forages and the composition of their meat is attractive to many consumers. 

The Normans introduced rabbits to England, which were farmed in warrens as a source of meat. Much of the venison produced in Scotland is exported and it contributes little to total meat consumption in the United Kingdom.

2. Mutton

Sheep carcasses may be classified, based on the age of animal, into (a) lamb, (b) yearling mutton, and ( c ) mature mutton. Lamb carcasses as a group are distinguished from mutton carcasses by their smaller and tender bones, lighter colored flesh, and softer and whiter external and internal fats (the age of ovine animals of both sexes is less than one year). The carcasses of young sheep, from 12 to 20 months old, are usually termed yearling mutton, with harder and 



whiter bones, darker and coarser flesh, and thicker external and internal fat. The flesh of both males ( castrated and uncastrated) and females of ovine species that are 20 months in age at the time of slaugher is termed mature mutton. It has light to dark red color. The break joint fails to break due to the hardening of bones. Mature mutton has a strong characteristic odor, different from the delicate flavor of lamb.

3. Pork

Pork is a pigmeat. A good quality pork is obtained from swines between ages of 3 to 12 months, before the amount of fat becomes excessive. Pork is not differentiated according to the age and size of the pig. Pork generally has more fat than other meats. Bacon is the cut from the belly portion of hog carcass and has a high fat content.

4. Sausages

These are made of ground or minced meat, using mostly the cured meats. A variety of sausages are marketed under different classes depending on whether the ground meat is fresh or cured and whether the sausage is cooked or uncooked, smoked or unsmoked, and dried or not during manufacture. The cooked and smoked sausages are known as table-ready meats. The sausages are enclosed in natural casings made from animal intenstine or of plastic films.

5.Organ Meats (Offal)

These include liver, kidney, heart, sweetbread (thymus and pancreas), brain, lung, tripe (first and second stomach of the ruminants), head and tail of the animal. The organ meats are less expensive and more nutritious. The cooking methods vary according to their tenderness.

Though muscles form the bulk of the carcass meat, animal production and slaughter produces a wide range of by-products. Some of these products are edible and considered delicacies in many cultures, whereas other religious traditions restrict the consumption of offals as unclean (e.g., blood and blood products). Liver, kidneys, brain, and pancreas (sweetbreads) are often consumed, but other organs (intestine, tripe, pigs' trotters and cow heel) are delicacies with restricted consumption.

The organs can form the foci of infection in an animal. Most developed countries therefore have veterinary inspections at slaughterhouses to eliminate this possibility.

C. Meat Processing

In developed countries, animals are slaughtered for meat production under closely regulated conditions. Cattle and sheep are often killed humanely with<ra captive bolt, and pigs and lambs are usually stunned electrically. The animal is then strung up and bled. The abdominal cavity is opened and the viscera are removed. Pigs are often scalded in hot water to remove the bristles before cleaning. The carcasses are then split longitudinally and chilled. The meat may be separated from the bone before chilling (hot boning). Rapid chilling tends to toughen the meat but is usually employed to improve throughput. Electrical stimulation is widely used to reduce the coldshortening that accompanies very rapid chilling.







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