from different types of cattle are designated with various terms.
Veal is the meat from cattle slaughtered 3 to 4 weeks after birth.
Beef is the meat of cattle more than one year old. Beef carcass is
classified according to sex, age, and sexual conditions of the
animals as follows:
carcase meats in Europe and the United States are produced from
cattle, sheep, and pigs, whereas in the Middle East, Africa, and
India other animals, such as goats, camels, and water buffalo, are
also used. Stear a bovine male castrated at very young age
bovine female that has not yet borne a calf
a bovine female, that has borne a calf
a bovine male that is castrated after maturity
a male or female bovine animal of up to 12 months age (3-8 months
quality of meat from stear and heifer is the same, if animals are of the
same grade. The quality of meat from cow and bull depends upon maturity,
but is generally inferior to that of stear or heifer. The meat quality
of stag varies according to the age at which it is castrated.
production systems range from extensive ranging of cattle to very
intensive "feedlots" in the United States. The animals are
usually raised initially on grass, which may be grazed or fed as
or silage, with cereal-based concentrates fed during the finishing
stages. Veal is produced from calves under semi-intensive systems,
using milk-based concentrated rations to produce very
is mainly used for animal food in United Kingdom, but it is widely
consumed in continental Europe by human beings. Goats and camels
are major meat animals in the Arab countries. Since mature camels
produce rather tough meat, young animals are preferred for meat.
buffalo are important in the Middle East and Asia and are usually
farmed extensively in traditional ways.
of animals or their parts as foods varies considerably with
national preferences and religious beliefs. While the consumption
of horsemeat, dogmeat, and guinea pigs is not considered normal in
the U nited Kingdom, these foods are eaten elsewhere. The J ewish
food laws proscribe a number of animals whose flesh is regarded as
unclean, for example those who chew the cud, but do not have
cloven feet ( e.g., coney or rock hyrax, hare, camel) and those
with cloven feet, but do not chew the cud (pigs ). The rules also
prohibited consumption of many other animals such as birds of prey
or carrion eaters, waterfowl, snakes, and marine mammals (6).
Islam has proscribed the pig as unclean. Both Islam and Judaism
have prescribed a ritual protocol for the slaughter of animals for
the United States, careful management of wildlife provides an
important source of meat, and in Sweden deer and reindeer are
important meat animals. Wild animals often flourish on poor
forages and the composition of their meat is attractive to many
Normans introduced rabbits to England, which were farmed in
warrens as a source of meat. Much of the venison produced in
Scotland is exported and it contributes little to total meat
consumption in the United Kingdom.
carcasses may be classified, based on the age of animal, into (a)
lamb, (b) yearling mutton, and ( c ) mature mutton. Lamb carcasses
as a group are distinguished from mutton carcasses by their
smaller and tender bones, lighter colored flesh, and softer and
whiter external and internal fats (the age of ovine animals of
both sexes is less than one year). The carcasses of young sheep,
from 12 to 20 months old, are usually termed yearling mutton, with
bones, darker and coarser flesh, and thicker external and internal
fat. The flesh of both males ( castrated and uncastrated) and
females of ovine species that are 20 months in age at the time of
slaugher is termed mature mutton. It has light to dark red color.
The break joint fails to break due to the hardening of bones.
Mature mutton has a strong characteristic odor, different from the
delicate flavor of lamb.
is a pigmeat. A good quality pork is obtained from swines between
ages of 3 to 12 months, before the amount of fat becomes
excessive. Pork is not differentiated according to the age and
size of the pig. Pork generally has more fat than other meats.
Bacon is the cut from the belly portion of hog carcass and has a
high fat content.
are made of ground or minced meat, using mostly the cured meats. A
variety of sausages are marketed under different classes depending
on whether the ground meat is fresh or cured and whether the
sausage is cooked or uncooked, smoked or unsmoked, and dried or
not during manufacture. The cooked and smoked sausages are known
as table-ready meats. The sausages are enclosed in natural casings
made from animal intenstine or of plastic films.
include liver, kidney, heart, sweetbread (thymus and pancreas),
brain, lung, tripe (first and second stomach of the ruminants),
head and tail of the animal. The organ meats are less expensive
and more nutritious. The cooking methods vary according to their
muscles form the bulk of the carcass meat, animal production and
slaughter produces a wide range of by-products. Some of these
products are edible and considered delicacies in many cultures,
whereas other religious traditions restrict the consumption of
offals as unclean (e.g., blood and blood products). Liver,
kidneys, brain, and pancreas (sweetbreads) are often consumed, but
other organs (intestine, tripe, pigs' trotters and cow heel) are
delicacies with restricted consumption.
organs can form the foci of infection in an animal. Most developed
countries therefore have veterinary inspections at slaughterhouses
to eliminate this possibility.
developed countries, animals are slaughtered for meat production
under closely regulated conditions. Cattle and sheep are often
killed humanely with<ra captive bolt, and pigs and lambs are
usually stunned electrically. The animal is then strung up and
bled. The abdominal cavity is opened and the viscera are removed.
Pigs are often scalded in hot water to remove the bristles before
cleaning. The carcasses are then split longitudinally and chilled.
The meat may be separated from the bone before chilling (hot
boning). Rapid chilling tends to toughen the meat but is usually
employed to improve throughput. Electrical stimulation is widely
used to reduce the coldshortening that accompanies very rapid